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Glossary : definition of terms used to talk about Bourgogne wines beginning with A.

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Bourgogne wines Glossary

Shedding of parts of a plant (leaves, immature fruit) triggered by a vegetable hormone, abscissic acid.
Related words Coulure

During filtration, macromolecules such as tannins and polyphenols which lend the wine body and aromatic richness may be absorbed by the filtration plates and so impoverish the wine.

Related words Aroma / Odour, Polyphenols, Tannins, Wine, Particulate matter
Group of small arachnids, often wrongly described as "spiders", which includes mites and ticks. Some species ("red spiders", "yellow spiders") infest vine leaves, inhibiting photosynthesis and causing "grape rust". Typhlodromes, on the other hand, also acarids, are useful allies which prey on the vine parasites. They are now employed systematically as a means of organic pest control.
At certain stages in their production, wines may need to pass analytical tests or tastings in order to receive formal permission to proceed.
Related words Tasting
(tast.) Harsh and acidic.
Related words Harsh, Hard, Maceration, Stalk / Stem, Vinification
Condition caused by the action of acetic acid in the wine, lending it a vinegary odour (piqûre). Can be prevented by careful hygiene, avoidance of oxidation (exposure to the air), and by moderate sulphiting.
Related words Acescent,acetic, Bacteria
Naturally present in the wine. If allowed to combine with alcohol in the presence of air it produces ethyl acetate by bacterial action, giving the wine a vinegary odour (See Acescence).
Related words Acescent,acetic, Organic acid, Volatile acidity, Ethanol / Ethyl alcohol, Sour-sweet
Additive such as tartaric acid which increases the acidity of a wine.
Related words Tartaric acid, Acidity

(tast.) one of the basic elements in the taste of a wine, together with astringency and mellowness/sweetness. Acidity lends a desirable freshness to young white wines such as Bourgogne Aligoté but may be a fault in top grade wines. (See also Total acidity, Volatile acidity)


Related words Acidifier, Harsh, Aggressive, Sour-sweet, Angular / Sharp / Spiky, Flavour / taste

(tast.) Describes the taste of a wine which has not undergone malolactic fermentation.


Related words Malolactic fermentation, Flavour / taste
Something added, e.g. sulphur dioxide (see Sulphur)
Related words Sulphur, Barrel, Sulphur dioxide
Additive such as Kieselguhr only temporarily present in a wine.
Related words Kieselguhr / Diatomite / Diatomaceous earth / Infusorial earth
Electrostatic phenomenon by which particles become attached to other particles, as happens in fining and filtration.
Related words Particulate matter, Fining, Filtration
Unwanted bud growing from old wood on the vine.
(1) During vinification, deliberate oxygenation by racking or other method. (2) (tast.) Preparatory stage in the tasting process by which the wine is exposed to air by uncorking and/or decanting.
Related words Racking, Aroma / Odour
Describes a micro-organism active in the presence of air. (Cf Anaerobic)
(tast.) Disagreeable taste experienced after the wine has left the mouth.
(tast.) Said of a wine with too much acidity and/or tannin and/or (though rarely) alcohol.
Related words Acidity, Tannins, Alcohol

Ethyl alcohol (ethanol), the main ingredient of a wine after water, is produced by fermentation. It is a by-product, together with CO2, of the action of yeasts on sugars. The alcohol content of a wine is expressed as degrees or % volume, the two being equivalent. Alcohol gives warmth to a wine and is partially responsible for the mellowness which counterbalances acidity.


Related words Acescent,acetic, Aggressive, Heady, Alcoholic fermentation, Yeasts

(tast.) Wine with too much alcohol resulting in a hot or even burning sensation in the mouth.


Alcoholic fermentation transforms must into wine by the action of yeasts transforming sugars (fructose, glucose) into alcohol (ethanol) and CO2, releasing heat at the same time. Many other substances make their appearance during fermentation – glycerol, esters, organic acids, etc. – all of which contribute to the rich and complex character of the finished wine.


Related words Succinic acid, Volatile acidity, Alcohol, Rough / "bourru"
Substance formed by oxidation of alcohol (ethanol > ethanal ?? alkanal??) and producing an odour of walnut.
Related words Oxidation, Ethanol / Ethyl alcohol
Grape variety native to Burgundy. Produces round berries in almost cylindrical bunches, very pale orange in colour, flecked with brown. A vigorous variety, does well on sloping sites. Prone to mildew and black rot (anthracnose) but resistant to oïdium. Tends to yield light, acidic wines to be drunk young. The best come from a few Burgundian villages, notably Bouzeron (recognised as a communal appellation in 1998).
Related words Mildew / Downy mildew
(tast.) Aroma of the dried fruit family found in certain white burgundies.
Related words Aroma / Odour
Coleopterous insect which may parasitise the vines.
Colour found in some old wines.
(tast.) (1) Disagreeable taste in the back of the throat caused by immature tannins, expecially in red wines. (2) Disorder caused by bacterial action on the wine's glycerol content.
Related words Bitterness
Biogenic amines are substances produced from amino-acids by bacterial action. Their presence in wine is subject to regulation.
Related words Amino-acids
Nitrogenous compounds, the building blocks of proteins and natural nutriments for the yeasts and bacteria in a wine.
Related words Yeasts, Bacteria, Amines
Fast-acting fertilisers which speed up the decay of organic matter in the soil.
The study of grapes and more especially of grape varieties.
Related words Grape variety
Pottery jar used for transport and storage of wine by the Romans. Found in large numbers on Gallo-Roman archaeological sites such as Bibracte near Autun.
Describes bacteria which can exists in the absence of air.

(tast.) Said of wine which lacks body or suppleness but has an excess of tannin and acidity.


Related words Acidity, Tannins

(tast.) Class of wine odours (game, venison, musk, leather, ... ) A characteristic of red burgundies made from the Pinot Noir.


Related words Nose
Polyphenolic compounds responsible for the colour of black grape, resident mainly in the skin from which they are extracted by maceration.
Related words Polyphenols, Maceration

AOC

Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée. Products – mainly wines but also, for example, cheeses – named for the district in which they are produced. Burgundy has 100 AOC wines, the 100th (Saint-Bris) being created as recently as January 2003. There are 33 Grand Cru AOCs, 44 Communal (or Village) AOCs, and 23 Regional AOCs. The Communal AOCs include 562 named Premier Cru climats. (See also INAO)


the vine requires nitrogen ( N) for leaf growth, phosphoric acid (P2 O4) for fertility and general health, and potash (K2O) to improve yield, increase the sugar level and reduce the acidity of the must, and for increased resistance to frost and disease.
Cammoercial fertilisers are usually sold in granular form and applied by specially adapted machines either broadcast over the whole soil surface or only between the rows. it woyld be preferable to carry out this work in November so that the fertiliser is worked into the soil during the earthing-up process and carried to the roots by the winter rains.
a comparatively recent practice either for preventing weeds from growing or for killing weeds which are already established.

The aromas of a wine are perceived directly by the nose, or via the mouth (retro-olfaction). They are divided into primary aromas due to the grape variety (e.g. Chardonnay or Pinot Noir), secondary aromas which are products of fermentation, and tertiary aromas which develop during the ageing process. The word "odour" on the whole is reserved for disagreeable/undesirable smells.


Related words Absorption, Aeration, Citrus, Almond, Pineapple, Aromas@, Austere, Balsamic, Butter, Bouquet / Nose, Brioche, Cocoa, Coffee, Cinnamon, Varietal flavour, Cherry, Honeysuckle, Beeswax, Lemon, Civet
The aromas of a wine are perceived directly by the nose, or via the mouth (retro-olfaction). They are divided into primary aromas due to the grape variety (e.g. Chardonnay or Pinot Noir), secondary aromas which are products of fermentation, and tertiary aromas which develop during the ageing process. The word "odour" on the whole is reserved for disagreeable/undesirable smells.
Related words Hawthorn / Whitethorn
Name copyrighted by the BIVB for a multimedia presentation which includes olfactory experience.
Related words Aroma / Odour
Used at one time in filtration but banned since 1980.
Related words Filtration

(tast.) Sensation produced in the mouth by the tannins in the wine, especially in young red wines.


Related words Harsh

(tast.) Said of young and tannic wines, lacking in aromas.


Related words Aroma / Odour, Tannic
Of guaranteed purity as regards place of origin and grape variety.
Related words Grape variety, Terroir
Decomposition of yeasts by enzymes contained in their own cells. Can promote malolactic fermentation and improve the aromatic quality of white wines matured on their lees.
Related words Lees, Yeasts, Laths
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